Triglav National park (TNP) lies in the area of northwestern Slovenia, spacifically of Julian Alps. It is the only National park in Slovenia and it applies special nature protection regime, which is more tringent as in landscape parks. In the area of the park dominates high-mountainous Karst. Vegetation in the park is typically Alpine, but due to the proximity of the Adriatic Sea and influence of the Mediterranean climate on the southwestern part of the park are also present plants from this area. Park surface measures 83,807 ha, its highest point is Triglav with 2,864 meters, the lowest is Tolminka with 180 meters. The park was named after mountain Triglav, the highest Slovenian mountain, which lies almost in the center of the park.
In August 1908, a group of man walked through the part of the Triglav lakes valley. That were the official participants of visit that was initiated by seismologist and naturalist Albin Belar. To realization of Belar proposal for the cration of Nature-conservation park over Kamarča did not come, because there was no legal basis. Former satutory previsions also did not allow limitation of grazing. That was missed opportunity for Slovenia to have the first National park in Europe.
The department for the protection of nature and natural monuments of the Museum society in year 1920 submitted the famous Memorandum to the Provincial government of Slovenia, which requested the establishment of conservation parks following the example of other countries. Establishment of the Alpine consevation park in 1924 succeeded (surface 1.400 ha) for only 20 years.
In year 1926 was for the first time used name Triglav National park. Credit goes to the professor Fran Jesenko, who on 30th May in journal Jutro spoke about the attractions of the Triglav National park.
After the expiry of the 20 year contract, re-establishment of the park was hindered by grazing interests and the ambiguity concerning the jurisdiction of proclaiming the park. Peoples’s assembly of Rebulic of Slovenia on 26th May 1961 adopted the Ordinance on the proclamation of the Triglav lakes valley for National park under the name Triglav National park (surface 2.000 ha). Extension of Triglav National park was adopted on 27th May 1981 with law about Triglav National park (surface 83,807 ha or 838,07 square kilometers or 4% of Slovenia surface).
HYDROLOGY OF TRIGLAV NATIONAL PARK
In Triglav National park are two major divides:
– of river Soča, which flows into Adriatic Sea
– of river Sava, flowing towards Black Sea
On mostly rugged mountain terrain of Kars are noteworthy numerous permanent waterfalls. In Soča valley of the park the waterfalls are more numerous.
The largest lake of Triglav National park is lake Bohinj, which is a tectonic-glacial origin. Known are smaller Triglav lakes. One of them is also Black lake, from where water sinks towards the waterfall Savica. Hich in the mountains are also Kriška and Krn lake.
The park combines on its area extraordinary diversity of ecosystems. It covers the sharp high-mountains with its distinctive vegetation and life. In the intervening valleys we meet friendly environment, on southern side on some places appears the impact of the sea.
CAVES AND CAVING
A large part of the Triglav National park consists of heavily karstified Upper-Triassic carbonates. The surface is glaciokarstic, on highland plateaus are numerous entrances into the Karst abysses, which sometimes run over a kilometer deep into the massif. The development of high-mountain caves is closely related with Pleistocene glaciation. The area of the park is one of the caving hottest research areas in the world. The first caves were explored already in 20s of the last century, today there are 637 registered caves.
FORMER AND MODERN ACTIVITIES IN THE PARK
In the Triglav National park were in the past particularly important four industries: foundries, coal mining, alpine farming and forestry. Today’s human impact is in the center of the park mostly seasonal: alpine farming, forestry and tourism.