Trnovski gozd is Karst plateau that represents uttermost northwest part of the mighty Dinaric Mountains. Mountaineering world of Trnovski gozd is Karstic, without liquid water on the surface and is divided with closed hollows, bumps, humps and hills, caves, crevices and small Karstic formations: karrens, grooves and others. Among Karstic phenomena, caves with eternal ice and snow are especially important. At the entrance is 385 meters deep and 1550 meters long Velika ledena jama (Big ice cave) in Paradana, it is world famous cave. In the past, they drove ice out of it, even to Egypt.
In Trnovski gozd are three nature reserves:
– Paradana with natural monument Big ice cave
– Golaki with Spruce cove
– Smrečje in Trnovo forest
In this area, the effects of tectonics are very noticeable. Here are numerous depressions, Karst coves, small Karst fields and remnants of former river valleys. Rivers, in the Pliocene, decreased tectonic rising, and swamped the valleys. Traces were also left by Pleistocene glaciation, as the slipping ice at that time on mostly flat surface created a small cirque, floor and head-on moraine. Rivers carried gravel, deposited it in lower areas and with it filled existing basin.
On the north side is obvious tectonic basing by the Dinaric oriented Idrija fracture, on the south are shown the results of tectonic thrusting of Mesozoic limestones and dolomites on the younger Eocene flysch. Completely two-thirds of the land is covered with limestone, quarter with dolomite, the rest by flysch and agglutinate material.
Despite numerous precipitations is this Karstic plateau is almost an hydrous region. Ridgeline is very unclear, and just because of this Karstic surface. The strongest spring is Hubelj, which springs above the city Ajdovščina.
Plateau Trnovski gozd is covered with mixed beech-fir forest. The highest part of plateau is on small Golaki with altitude 1495 meters, which peak is naked, slightly lower overgrown with dwarf willow and pine. In rocky cracks we can find protected plants, like Carniolan Primrose.
– Golaki are rich with flora (Sub-Mediterranean-mountain and Alpine species and fauna (bears. wolves, lynx, owl)
– Piney cove is the largest Karst ravine in Trnovo forest with a typical hollows with heat and vegetable plants
– Small Lazna, cold with known botanical locality due to vegetation plants
– Smerečje has irregular shape of Karst ravine with thick alluvial deposits covered bottom and with sinkholes and bumps
– Big ice cave is 600 meters deep and 2 kilometers long, with characteristic halls in the entry part, and a series of potholes in further part
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