Krškopolje pig is the only preserved Slovenian autochthonous breed of pig. It was created in the (wider) area of Dolenjska, especially in the valleys, perhaps also in the southern part of Štajerska. On wider area of Dolenjska, in year 1851, long, bulk and mostly black or ventricles pigs prevailed. Some of them are short with upright ears. Krško-Polish pig was first described and for the first time newly named by Rohrman in year 1899.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE BREED
Krškopolje breed of pigs was deliberatly nobled with breeds sufolk, berkšir, cornwall, wassexwessex and sattelschwein. There was unplanned mating with Paduan and Laško pigs, Croatian, Bosnian and Serbian breed of pigs (pikci, turopoljci, Sremska breed …), with wild pigs and other breeds in this area. Nobling and mating was performed also with white breeds of pigs (jorkšir, heševska, German nobled and county, Czech white, Holand white) and with breed duroc and pietrain. With genotype of these breeds, pigs lost their distinguishing girdedment, and therefore were eliminated from population of krškopolje pigs. With the implementation of backcrossing, some of genotypes of those breeds were included in population of krškopolje pig. Due to large population of krškopolje pig between years 1851 – 1970, we can conclude that the proportion of foreign genes in population of Krškopolje pig was small and was rising after year 1970. Imported sattelschwein breed had significant impact on conservation of population of krškopolje pigs in year 2003.
With development (with nobling, selection, effects of enviroment) exterior of krškopolje pig changed. Medium long narrow head with flat forehead and snout became shorter and wider, nasal profile became concave. Skin was at first thin, less overgrown with fine bristles, but later it became thicker and stronger, with dense, strong and shiny bristles. In year 1991, rare overgrowth was recorded. Colouring of pigs remained similar over the whole period. Shingled ears were always hanging, but were not necessarily the same length. From year 1956 till 2006, the length of the animal decreased, but volume, width and height increased and head extended.
Krškopolje pig, after year 1990, due to learning about value of biodiversity, gained on meaning. Autochthonous breeds became part of biodiversity. Biodiversity has gained on scientific, economic, aesthetic and ethical importance. Conservation of biodiversity has become a national and cultural commitment of individual, nation and humanity. Systematic preservation of the breed started.