March revolution or revolutions 1848, also bourgeois or national revolutions or the Spring of nations. These were a part of related revolution around Europe due to demands of people for more rights, some also demanded the power. The revolution began due to the demands of economically more and more stronger bourgeoisie for political rights, at the same time numerous nations at that time formed their own national programs.
Revolutions started in France, as in time before the revolution the resistance of Liberals and nationalists against July Monarchy strengthened the acts of French government. In internal policy it resisted the extension of very limited voting right, in foreign policy it conceded too much to Great Britain. Already in year 1847 the campaign for extension of voting rights was developing in France, which still lasted at the beginning of year 1848. In the frame of this campaign they organised reform banquets, but in February 1848 the president François Guziot forbade the banquet in Paris, which led to demonstrations on February 22nd. So it came to clashes between the army, demonstrators and the National Guard. On February 24th 1848 the king Louis Philippe resigned and fled to England. After this the power was taken over by temporary government which declared the republic. The government upheld to lower class and introduced necessary reforms. In April they conducted the elections into national assembly on which Republican party had won, but they did not have the ear for demands of the workers. After this, in May and June, riots followed in Paris.
Revolutions also happened in Habsburgh monarchy. In Wien the March revolution started on March 13th 1848. Although the army drove away the demonstrators, the prince Klemens Lother Metternich resigned. But revolution spread quickly throughout other lands in monarchy. In Hungary the revolution started on March 15th, in Ljubljana only a day after, March 16th 1848. The revolution also affected Habsburg’s possession in northern Italy. So Venice and Milan declared independency on March 22nd.
The revolution was around Europe defeated until the middle of year 1849. Reactionary political regimes, who have ruled in most of European countries, could not eliminate some vital assets of the revolution. In neither country they did not succeed to recover the feudal system. But national and liberal tendencies lived on. Intervention of workers into policy among bourgeoisie strengthened the fear of social revolution.
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