Adamič-Lunder embankment

 

Adamič-Lunder embankment
Adamič-Lunder embankment

Adamič-Lunder embankment is a street in the center of Ljubljana, which runs from the Triple Bridge towards the Dragon bridge. The street is dedicated to the memory of Ivan Adamič and Rudolf Lunder, young Slovenian boys, who died here due to German military violence on September 20th 1908. City authorities have already in 1932 commemorated the memory on them and dedicated the street in Moste to them, named Adamič-Lundrova ulica (en. Adamič-Lunder street). This street was 20 year later renamed into Ulica Goce Delčeve (en. Street of Goca Delčeva), after a Macedonian rebel against the Turks. Adamič and Lunder got their place in the center of the city, on the spot where their life’s journey tragically ended. The old name of the street was Nabrežje 20. septembra (en. Embankment of September 20th).

In those days Ljubljana was on the edge, that ”gunpowder” ignites. On September 13th on Ptuj the gathering of Slovenian school Society St. Ciril and Methodius happened. The society had been erecting Slovenian schools on threatened areas due to the state’s and country’s indifferences.  The society was established as an answer to similar German society Deutscher Schulverein in year 1885. This German society stood for German education in Slovenian places. Society Ciril and Methodius every year organised general assembly or great Assembly, which was held on September 11th. On Sunday the Ptuj overstrained people organised demonstrations against the Assembly and they scolded, had beaten with sticks and threw rocks, mud and eggs into participants of the Assembly already on their way to National home. Everything repeated after Slovenians were leaving Ptuj.

Adamič-Lunder embankment sign
Adamič-Lunder embankment sign

The event launched in general public the wave of outrage, due to that the members of the Liberal party organised the gathering in Ljubljana on September 18th against German savagery on Ptuj. Around ten-thousand people joined the gathering. After the gathering ended the speakers asked the present people to leave peacefully, but at the nearby square Vodnikov trg the Germans were waiting for them and started to pour ink from the windows of German hardware store Nagya, similar events were also happening in other parts in the surrounding areas. This was exactly what encouraged that the attacked crowd to start with shattering the glass and the gathering went out of control. The crowd collapsed to the Triple Bridge towards the building of Kazina, the seat of Ljubljana Germanism, and shattered all the glass on the building. The crowd continued and did the same to the building of provincial government and German Carniola savings. Many latched also on German and bilingual signs of craft workshops, buildings and stores and throw them into Ljubljanica. The government called the military of 27.  regiment, which managed to restore order sometime towards the morning. Military and police guarded the building of Kazina and other German buildings, in nights hours they had spread out the members of 27. regiment from Belgian military post, which was housing on Metelkova, territorial militia units from former military post on Roška ulica, members of 17. regiment and dragoons or horsemen.

The Adamič family was living in šentpeter suburb, son Ivan Adamič was at that time attending  the fourth year of II. State gimnasium – Gimnasium Poljane. On September 20th the family was visited by an acquaintance from Amerika and both went out for a walk around Ljubljana, Ivan with a promise to her mom to return until eight o’clock. Ivan went home sometime after eight and because military closed all the main streets he tried to get back on side streets.

Rudolf Lunder was living in the same area as Adamič, on Ulica Sv. Petra or today’s Trubarjeva ulica, which the military closed already at the entrance, on Prešeren square and because of that he decided to take a turn. He was a printer and engineer in National printing house, which on this day was celebrating the 40th anniversary of their existence. For that reason they gathered already in the morning on solemn ceremony, later the party ensued. After the end, he and his girlfriend continued to Debevc inn on Breg, afterwards they went home. As at the Prešeren monument they could not reach Cesta Sv. Peter (en. Street of St. Peter), they went across Franciscan bridge, at the building of bourgeois property Kresija they turned towards school avenue, which was running along Ljubljanica. On this way they would have come to the Dragon bridge and then back on Cesta Sv. Petra. But at Kresija they heard shots, while running, Rudolf was hit from behind. They managed to get to the stairway, which were leading from Pogačarjev square towards Cathedral, where Rudolf remained lying.

From the other side, towards school avenue along Ljubljanica, was coming Ivan Adamič. He was among those, who had run when shots broke out. He was also hit from behind, despite that he picked himself up and continued towards through Medarske streets towards inn Pri Kolovratu, which was located on square in front diocese or today’s Ciril-Metodov square. At this diocese palace he collapsed and later died. Just before his death dr. Jerše rushed to him and gave him the last sacrament.

Already next day, special edition of Slovenski narod (en. Slovenian nation) was published, which in detail described the events from previous night. The article was titled Victims of military violence. On September 21st the public went into mourning. The same day the municipal council gathered and accepted measures to establish order and peace in the city. The funeral for both young men was paid by city, at the same time they donated the money for their gravestones.

At that time Adam and Lunder were marked as national martyrs. With collected money they erected memorial for them in year 1933 on the pillar of vault above Cathedral and diocese palace, which still today testify, that Ljubljana contributed its part towards that time national liberation with the blood of Adamič and Lunder.

This tragedy at the end also brought something good. As since then in Ljubljana there were only Slovenian signs above craft workshops and stores, no more German or bilingual. Mayor Ivan Hribar advocated for this before the event, but nobody listened to him. At the end everything went in right way on its own, but unfortunately innocent victims had to fall. Also new awareness was created, which infused Slovenian public, as youth turn the back to Austria and started with solid faith preparing on better times. Adamič and Lunder became role models to these harbingers of new era, although the goal was reached only ten years after their deaths and together with other residents of Slovenian places lived to see the end of repressive Monarchy.

 

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Ljubljana is the capital and largest city of Slovenia. It is geographical, political, scientific, economic, administrative and cultural center of Slovenian nation and most important economic center. It was at the crossroads of Germanic, Romance and Slavic people, their languages, customs and traditions. [_Read more_]

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